Introduction to Law and Governance KASNEB Notes

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KASNEB CPA FOUNDATION LEVEL

UNIT DESCRIPTION

This paper is intended to equip the candidate with the knowledge, skills and attitude that will enable him/her to apply the principles of law and legal systems in an entity and ensure compliance with basic principles of governance and ethics.

LEARNING OUTCOMES

A candidate who passes this paper should be able to:

  • Demonstrate knowledge of essential elements of the legal system
  • Demonstrate knowledge of legal personality
  • Apply law of contract and tort in various scenarios
  • Apply general principles of business law in practice
  • Apply fundamental principles of ethics in practice
  • Comply with fundamental principles of governance

CONTENT

1. Nature, Purpose and Classification of Law

  • 1.1       Meaning of law
  • 1.2       Nature of law
  • 1.3       Purpose of law
  • 1.4       Classification of law
  • 1.5       Law and morality
  • 1.6       The Constitution
  • 1.7       Legislation and delegated legislation
  • 1.8       Substance of common law and doctrines of equity
  • 1.9       African customary law
  • 1.10     Islamic law, Hindu law and African customary law
  • 1.11     Judicial precedence
  • 1.12     General rules of International law and ratified treaties

2. Administrative Law

  • 2.1       Meaning of administrative law
  • 2.2       Sources of administrative law
  • 2.3       Functions of administrative laws
  • 2.4       Doctrine of separation of powers
  • 2.5       Delegated legislation
  • 2.6       Control of delegated legislation
  • 2.7       Discretion and Judicial count of executive
  • 2.8       Liability of state (contractual/ tortious)
  • 2.9       Principles of natural justice
  • 2.10     Judicial control of the Executive
  • 2.11     Independence of Judiciary
  • 2.12     Remedies in administrative law (mandamus, certiorari, prohibition, habeas corpus; injunction and declaration)

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3. The Court System

  • 3.1       Establishment, structure, composition and jurisdiction of courts
  • 3.2       Supreme Court
  • 3.3       Court of Appeal
  • 3.4       High Court
  • 3.5       Employment and Labour Relations Court
  • 3.6       Environmental and Land court
  • 3.7       International Court of Justice
  • 3.8       Magistrates Court
  • 3.9       Court Martial
  • 3.10     Kadhi’s Court
  • 3.11     Distinction between Courts and Tribunals

4. Alternative Dispute Resolutions (ADR)

  • 4.1       Nature of alternative dispute resolutions (ADR)
  • 4.2       Nature and types of disputes
  • 4.3       Legal framework governing ADR
  • 4.4       General principles of ADR
  • 4.5       Negation and Conciliation
  • 4.6       Mediation
  • 4.7       Arbitration
  • 4.8       Dispute Review Boards
  • 4.9       Traditional dispute resolution mechanisms

5. Law of Persons

  • Natural and artificial persons
  • Nationality, citizenship and domicile
  • Unincorporated and incorporated associations
  • Co-operative societies

6. Law of Tort

  • 6.1       Nature of tort
  • 6.2       General defenses under tort
  • 6.3       Negligence
  • 6.4       Types of liabilities in tort
  • 6.5       Trespass
  • 6.6       Limitation and survival of actions
  • 6.7       Remedies in tort
  • 6.8       Principles in awards damages
  • 6.9       Defamation

7. Law of Contract

  • 7.1       Definition of a contract
  • 7.2       Classification of contracts
  • 7.3       Essentials of a valid contract
  • 7.4       Terms of a contract
  • 7.5       Exemption clauses
  • 7.6       Vitiating factors
  • 7.7       Discharge of contract
  • 7.8       Remedies for breach of a contract
  • 7.9       Limitation of actions
  • 7.10     Contract negotiation
  • 7.11     Information technology and the law of contract

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8. Sale of Goods

  • 8.1       Nature of the contract of sale of goods
  • 8.2       Types of goods
  • 8.3       Formalities of the contract
  • 8.4       Terms of the contract
  • 8.5       Implied terms statute, custom/usage
  • 8.6       Rights and duties of the parties
  • 8.7       Remedies for price and breach of contract
  • 8.8       Auction sales
  • 8.9       International contracts of sale: FAS, FOB, CIF, FCA, CPT, CIP, DAT, DAP, DDP, CFR, DAF, DDU, Ex-works and Ex-ship

9. Agency

  • 9.1       Meaning and nature of the agency contract
  • 9.2       Types of agents
  • 9.3       Parties to the agency relationship
  • 9.4       Creation of agency
  • 9.5       Authority of an agent
  • 9.6       Rights and duties of the parties
  • 9.7       Personal liability of agents
  • 9.8       Liability of the parties
  • 9.9       Termination of agency

10. Partnership

  • 10.1     Nature of partnership
  • 10.2     Registration process and requirements of partnership business
  • 10.3     Types of partnerships
  • 10.4     Rights, duties and liabilities of existing, incoming and minor partners
  • 10.5     Management of partnerships
  • 10.6     Dissolution of partnerships and its consequences

11. Indemnity and Guarantees

  • 11.1     Essential features of indemnity
  • 11.2     Nature and extent of liability of indemnifier
  • 11.3     Commencement of liability of indemnifier
  • 11.4     Nature of the contracts; essential features of contract guarantee; distinction between contract of guarantee/ indemnity extent of nature and surety
  • 11.5     Obligations of surety
  • 11.6     Discharge of surety
  • 11.7     Letters of credit
  • 11.8     Rights and duties of the parties
  • 11.9     Termination of the contract
  • 11.10   Remedies for breach of contract

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12. Insurance

  • 12.1     Nature of the contract; types, parties to negotiable instrument
  • 12.2     Formalities of the contract
  • 12.3     Types of risks
  • 12.4     Parties to the contract of insurance
  • 12.5     Principles of insurance
  • 12.6     Types of insurance
  • 12.7     Transfers and amalgamation
  • 12.8     Termination of the contract
  • ICT and insurance

13. Negotiable Instruments

  • Nature and characteristics
  • Negotiability of the instrument
  • Types: Cheques, promissory notes, bills of exchange
  • Types of crossings
  • Obligations of the parties
  • Banker- customer relationship
  • Presentment; purpose, time, place
  • Discharge from liability
  • Modes of discharge
  • Dishonour, mode of dishonour, nature of protest, penalties for dishonour
  • Acceptance for honour
  • Criminal liability

14. The Law of Property

  • 14.1     Definition of property
  • 14.2     Classification of property (real and personal, movable and immovable, tangible and intangible)
  • 14.3     Property in land: Private, public and community land
  • 14.4     Interests in land: Estates, servitudes and encumbrances
  • 14.5     Intellectual property: Plant breeder’s patents, trademarks, copyrights and industrial designs
  • 14.6     Administration and management of land
  • 14.7     Sectional properties
  • 14.8     Management company
  • 14.9     Obligations of lessor and lessee in sessional property Act
  • 14.10   Transfer of land rights
  • 14.11   Role of professionals (Advocates, Certified Secretaries) in land transactions

15. Introduction to corporate governance

  • 15.1     Corporate governance – Definition and objects
  • 15.2     Principles of corporate governance
  • 15.3     Best practice in corporate governance
  • 15.4     Role of stakeholders (shareholders, Board of Directors, Government)
  • 15.5     Conflict of interest – Investor education and protection of shareholders
  • 15.6     Compliance obligations
  • 15.7     Legal Audit- definition and objects

16. Professional Ethics

  • Introduction and overview of professional ethics
  • Professional misconduct
  • Publicity and advertisement
  • Morality and etiquette
  • Professional ethics for accountants, corporate secretaries
  • Ethics and practice within a firm
  • Enforcement of professional ethics and standards

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