KASNEB CAMS – Fundamentals of Business Mathematics Notes


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This paper is intended to equip the candidate with the requisite knowledge, skills and attitudes to apply basic mathematical concepts to solve problems in business and other environments.

A candidate who passes this paper should be able to:

  • Apply ratios, rates and proportions to interpret various scenarios
  • Apply indices and logarithms in computations
  • Use linear and matrix algebra to solve problems
  • Apply basic calculus to solve problems
  • Calculate measures of central tendency in statistics
  • Construct and interpret basic graphs

Ratios, Rates and Proportions

  • Ratios
  • Rates
  • Proportions
  • Fractions
  • Decimals
  • Percentages

Indices and Logarithms

  • Notations
  • Laws of indices
  • Simplifying and solving indices
  • Logarithms
  • Change of base

Linear Equations

  • Linear equations in one unknown
  • Linear equations in two unknowns
  • Graphical solutions in two unknowns

Download Fundamentals of Business Mathematics Notes

Matrix Algebra

  • Notations
  • Operations
  • Solving a 2*2 matrix

Sequences and Series

  • Arithmetic progression(A.P):nth term, sum of first n terms
  • Geometric progression (G.P): nth term, sum of first n terms

4.6 Commercial Mathematics

  • Percentage profit and loss
  • Simple interest and compound interest
  • Appreciation and depreciation
  • Basic income tax calculations
  • Foreign exchange rates


  • Basic differentiation
  • Stationary points/turning points
  • Basic integration

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  • Definitions: event, experiment and outcome
  • Types of events
  • Rules/laws of probability
  • Conditional probability

Descriptive Statistics

  • Data collection
  • Data presentation; Frequency distribution table
  • Mean, mode and median
  • Variance and standard deviation


  • Cartesian plane
  • Linear graphs
  • Graphs of simultaneous equations
  • Graphs of quadratic equations
  • Bar charts
  • Time series graphs
  • Pie charts
  • Graphs of frequency distribution; histogram, polygon, frequency curve, ogive

Emerging issues and trends

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