Public Policy and Administration KASNEB Notes

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This paper is intended to equip the candidate with the knowledge, skills and attitudes that will enable them to manage organisations and people in addition to effectively formulating, interpreting, evaluating and implementing public policies.


A candidate who passes this paper should be able to;

  • Discuss the history, scope and environment of public administration
  • Articulate the basic theories and concepts relevant to the field of public administration.
  • Apply requisite knowledge to manage public sector organisations
  • Apply relevant skills in policy-making processes in implementation
  • Develop analytical and conceptual skills in critical evaluation of major policy issues
  • Apply democratic principles of public participation in decision making.


Nature of public administration

  • Concepts of public administration
  • History of public administration
  • Public administration versus management
  • Relationship between public administration and politics
  • Theoretical perspective of public administration
  • Principles of public administration
  • Challenges of traditional public administration in the public sector
  • Leadership, integrity and national values in public service

Structure and organisation of government

  • Structure of the national government
  • Structure of the county government
  • The three arms of government
  • Separation of powers/checks and balances
  • Independent Commissions and Offices
  • Objects and principles of the devolved government
  • Role of county executive
  • Role of the county assembly
  • The County Public Service Board
  • County administration structures
  • Inter-government relations

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Role of Certified Secretaries in government

  • Secretary to county public service board; appointment, qualification, roles, liabilities, removal and vacation of office
  • Secretary to urban and cities boards; appointment, qualification, roles, liabilities, removal and vacation of office
  • Secretary to government owned entities: appointment, qualification, roles,  liabilities, removal and vacation of office
  • Management of the political environment

The concept of public policy

  • Definition of public policy
  • Sources of public policy
  • Typology of public policies
  • Stages of a policy process in government and other public institutions
  • Policy design formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation
  • Benefits of public policy

Public policy making process and analysis

  • Tools of public policy analysis
  • Policy analysis models
  • Stakeholders analysis (the political and ideological contexts)
  • Research in public policy
  • Data collection and analysis

The context of public policy

  • Elements of the policy making process
  • Actors in policy making
  • Role    of   official   (institutional)    actors    (executive,   legislature,    judiciary   and administrators)
  • Roles of non-official (non-institutional) actors (political parties, interest and pressure groups)
  • Roles of private citizens
  • Factors that affect policy implementation

Impact of public policy on development

  • Linkage of public administration and public policy
  • National development and National and County plans and policies
  • Stakeholder’s involvement
  • National and county development plans
  • Characteristics of good/effective policies
  • Challenges of public policy formulation and implementation

Role of policy in resources allocation

  • Budgeting  as a policy instrument
  • Role of budgeting  in governance
  • Resources mobilisation, revenue and debt
  • Allocation and utilisation of resources for delivery of goods and services (including public procurement management)
  • The link between economic policy goals and public expenditure management

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Government owned enterprises

  • The nature of government owned enterprises
  • Regulatory and legal environment of government owned enterprises
  • Role of government owned enterprises in economic development
  • Performance contracting in public service
  • Social obligations of state owned enterprises
  • Relationship    between    government    owned    enterprises    and    the    national governments
  • Privatisation

Public procurement and disposal procedures

  • Meaning of public procurement and disposal
  • Objectives of public procurement and disposal
  • Legal and regulatory framework on public procurement and disposal
  • Roles and responsibilities of procuring agencies

Public Private Partnerships

  • Nature and types of public private partnerships
  • Legal and regulatory framework on public private partnerships
  • Process of public private partnerships
  • Role of public private partnerships in economic development
  • Public private partnerships versus procurement

Public participation in governance

  • The concept of public participation
  • Rationale for public participation
  • Legal framework for public participation
  • Principles of public participation
  • Benefits of public participation in government decision making
  • Challenges of public participation

Case studies in public administration and policy

Emerging issues and trends

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